COVID-19 in Papua New Guinea: information, expert commentary and media

The pandemic situation in Papua New Guinea is rapidly changing as community transmission of the COVID-19 virus accelerates. Since February, the recorded number of infected people has risen dramatically and a positive case with the Delta variant has been detected (as of mid-July). The cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in PNG is now 17,832 (16/8/2021 – Papua New Guinea National Department of Health). Low testing rates and delays in receiving and reporting results means that the actual number of infected people is likely to be far higher than that reported. Misinformation surrounding COVID-19 is rife (especially on social media) and vaccine hesitancy is contributing to low vaccination rates (approximately 1% of the population is vaccinated, 25/08/2021). Health services that were already understaffed, underfunded and poorly equipped are now under intense pressure. The spread and impact of the virus will highlight the capacity of households to respond and adapt their livelihood and farming systems. It will also reflect how social and economic inequalities within communities’ structure levels of vulnerability. Those living in high density informal settlements within the major towns and cities seem particularly vulnerable.

Health workers going on patrol in New Ireland

In an attempt to keep people informed on the spread of COVID-19 in PNG and its impacts, we are providing links to websites and articles that provide useful and relevant information (compiled in reverse chronological order). The content and views expressed in these articles are those of the authors, and not those of the Pacific Livelihoods Research Group.

See:

ANU. (2020). COVID-19 and the Pacific. https://devpolicy.org/tag/covid-19-and-the-pacific/

Alders, R., Crimp, S., Robins, L., Davila, F. and Bourke, M. (2020). Learning from the COVID-19 crisis to strengthen future food and nutrition security in the Indo-Pacific. Development Policy Blog, ANU. 

Arahan, R., Doan, D., Dornan, M., Munoz, A. Parsons, K., Yi, S. & Vergara-Hegi, D. (2020). Pacific Island Countries in the Era of COVID-19 : Macroeconomic Impacts and Job Prospects. Washington, D.C. World Bank Group.

Bailey, R.‐L. (2020). Border Closures: Experiences of Ni‐Vanuatu Recognized Seasonal Employer Scheme Workers. Oceania. 90: 68-74.

Banasi, R. & Wolfers, E.P. (2020). Madang Art Maniacs. Oceania. 90: 21-24.

Bourke, R.M. & Kanua, M.B. (2020). Potential response to COVID-19 epidemic in PNG: support for food production. Development Policy Centre, ANU. 

Butler, J.R.A., Davila, F., Alders, R., Bourke, R.M., Crimp, S., McCarthy, J., McWilliam, A., Palo, A.S.M., Robins, L., Webb, M.J., van Wensveen, M., Sanderson, T. and Walker, D. (2021). A rapid assessment framework for food system shocks: lessons learned from COVID-19 in the Indo-Pacific region. Environmental Science and Policy. 117:34-45. 

Davila, F., Bourke, R.M., McWilliam, A., Crimp, S., Robins, L., Van Wensveen, M., G. Alders, R. & Butler, J.R.A. (2021). COVID-19 and food systems in Pacific Island Countries, Papua New Guinea, and Timor-Leste: Opportunities for actions towards the sustainable development goals. Agricultural Systems. 191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103137

Dean, M.R.U. (2020). COVID‐19 and Fiji: A Case Study. Oceania. 90: 96-106.

Eickelkamp, U. & Chao, S. (Eds.). (2020). Oceanic Societies in COVID‐19. Oceania. 90(S1).

Gounder, R. (2020). Economic Vulnerabilities and Livelihoods: Impact of COVID‐19 in Fiji and Vanuatu. Oceania. 90: 107-113.

Lau, J., Sutcliffe, S & Hungito, W. (2020). Lived experiences of COVID-19: impacts on an atoll island community, Papua New Guinea. ARC CoE in Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University.

Leweniqila, I. & Vunibola, S. (2020). Food Security in COVID‐19: Insights from Indigenous Fijian Communities. Oceania. 90: 81-88.

Papua New Guinea National Department of Health. (2021). Papua New Guinea National Department of Health Facebook Page. https://www.facebook.com/PNGNDOH/

Papua New Guinea National Control Centre for COVID-19. (2021). Official Information Centre COVID-19 website. https://covid19.info.gov.pg/

Randin, G. (2020). COVID‐19 and Food Security in Fiji: The Reinforcement of Subsistence Farming Practices in Rural and Urban Areas. Oceania. 90: 89-95.

Robins, L., Crimp, S., Van Wensveen, M., Alders, RG., Bourke, RM., Butler, J., Cosijn, M., Davila, F., Lal A, McCarthy, JF., McWilliam, A., Palo, ASM., Thomson, N., Warr, P. & Webb, M. (2020). COVID-19 and food systems in the Indo-Pacific: An assessment of vulnerabilities, impacts and opportunities for action. ACIAR Technical Report 96, Canberra.

The report above examines the existing food system vulnerabilities being exposed or amplified by the COVID-19 shock, and looks at how this information can be used to inform future research and development to support food systems resilience in the Indo-Pacific. The COVID-19 crisis is examined through the lens of food and nutrition security, primarily from the perspective of smallholder farmers and fishers.

Troolin, D. (2020). Heterotopia in Melanesia: Reactions to COVID-19 in Papua New Guinea. In: Ryan, M. J. (ed). COVID-19: Volume I: Global Pandemic, Societal Responses, Ideological Solutions. Routledge.

Waula Bablis, G. (2020). The Great Mask Debate – To Wear or Not to Wear?. Oceania. 90: 25-29.

WHO. (2020). COVID-19 preparedness & response in Papua New Guinea. https://www.who.int/papuanewguinea/emergencies/covid-19-in-png

Wikipedia. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic in Papua New Guinea. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Papua_New_Guinea


Howes, S. & Mambon, K. (2021, 30 August). PNG’s plummeting vaccination rates: now the lowest in the world? https://devpolicy.org/pngs-plummeting-vaccination-rates-now-lowest-in-world-20210830/

Kuku, R. (2021, 19 August). PNG authorities order corpses to be swabbed amid fear of undetected Delta outbreak. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/19/png-authorities-order-corpses-to-be-swabbed-amid-fear-of-undetected-delta-outbreak

Radio New Zealand. (2021, 5 August). Rocks thrown at PNG vaccine awareness team. https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/448530/rocks-thrown-at-png-vaccine-awareness-team

O’Brien, P. A. (2021, 4 August). Pacific nations grapple with COVID’s terrible toll and the desperate need for vaccines. https://theconversation.com/pacific-nations-grapple-with-covids-terrible-toll-and-the-desperate-need-for-vaccines-164769

Radio New Zealand. (2021, 3 August). PNG citizens called on to get vaccinated. https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/448396/png-citizens-called-on-to-get-vaccinated

Whiting, N. (2021, 2 August). PNG caught in China-Australia power play as COVID-19 Delta variant infiltrates Pacific nation. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-08-02/png-caught-between-australia-and-china-as-it-fights-delta/100329206

Radio New Zealand. (2021, 16 July). Delta variant confirmed in PNG. https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/447015/delta-variant-confirmed-in-png

Kuku, R. (2021, 14 July). ‘It’s just like flu’: misinformation and fear hamper Papua New Guinea’s Covid vaccine rollout. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jul/14/its-just-like-flu-misinformation-and-fear-hamper-papua-new-guineas-covid-vaccine-rollout

Whiting, N. (2021, 3 July). Papua New Guinea vaccine program opened to all adults, border protection ramped up to keep Delta strain out. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-07-03/papua-new-guinea-vaccine-program-open-to-all-adults/100265400

Fox, R. (2021, 1 July). COVID-19 communication and trust in PNG: results from a survey. https://devpolicy.org/covid-19-communication-and-trust-in-png-results-from-a-survey-20210701/

Whiting, N. & Harriman, B. (2021, 26 June). Fears of COVID-19 ‘time bomb’ in PNG as unexplained deaths spark sorcery claims, torture and murder. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-06-26/coronavirus-a-time-bomb-in-png-amid-sorcery-allegations/100227350

Mercer, P. (2021, 3 May).  Papua New Guinea Covid-19: Mistrust fuels crisis as infections rise. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56926131

Lowy Institute. (2021, 21 April). AUS-PNG NETWORK: COVID-19 IN PNG’S PROVINCES. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/news-and-media/multimedia/video/aus-png-network-covid-19-png-provinces. Online Panel Discussion.

Whiting, N. (2021, 10 March). PNG hospitals under pressure amid surging COVID-19 cases, with patients calling out for help. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-10/png-field-hospital-struggles-with-serious-covid-patients-influx/100052634

Reuters. (Accessed 2021, 2 April). Papua New Guinea minister raps Facebook for Covid-19 misinformation. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/australianz/png-minister-raps-facebook-for-covid-19-misinformation. SPH Digital News.

ABC Radio. (2021, 1 April). Inside PNG’s COVID-19 crisis. https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/the-signal/papua-new-guinea-covid-outbreak/13284254

Hollingsworth, J. (2021, 28 March). This country only has about 500 doctors for 9 million people. Now it’s dealing with a Covid outbreak. https://edition.cnn.com/2021/03/27/asia/papua-new-guinea-covid-outbreak-intl-hnk-dst/index.html. CNN Online.

Forsyth, M. & Gibbs, P. (2021, 26 March). Worldview pluralism: part 2 – COVID-19 implications. https://devpolicy.org/worldview-pluralism-part-2-covid-19-implications-20210326-4/

ABC Radio. (2021, 25 March). PNG’s deepening COVID crisis, virus now “widespread”, says aid worker. https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/pm/no-tests-in-remote-png-provinces,-obscuring-the-true-picture/13275622

Ahearn, S. (2021, 23 March). Social media “bullshit” threatens control of COVID-19 outbreak in PNG. https://devpolicy.org/social-media-bullshit-threatens-control-of-covid-19-outbreak-in-png-20210323-3/#comment-774212

Kuku, R. (2021, 22 March). Covid cases in Papua New Guinea triple in a month as doctors warn of ‘danger days’ ahead. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/22/covid-cases-in-papua-new-guinea-triple-in-a-month-as-doctors-warn-of-danger-days-ahead-png

Pacific Beat. (2021, 22 March). Port Moresby hospital warns of COVID patients dying in car parks as PNG suffers coronavirus surge. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-03-22/png-more-covid-deaths-warning-port-moresby/100020876. ABC Radio Australia.

Kuku, R. (2021, 20 March). ‘This is what we feared’: how a country that avoided the worst of Covid finally got hit. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/20/this-is-what-we-feared-how-a-country-that-avoided-the-worst-of-covid-finally-got-hit-papua-new-guinea

Whiting, N. (2021, 19 March). Coronavirus infections are reaching a tipping point in PNG. Can a catastrophe on our doorstep be prevented? https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-03-19/png-nailed-its-first-year-of-coronavirus-heres-how-it-fell-apart/13249900

Doherty, B. (2021, 18 March). Papua New Guinea to impose ‘harsh control measures’ as Covid outbreak spirals. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/18/papua-new-guinea-to-impose-month-long-restrictions-as-covid-outbreak-spirals

Dziedzic, S. (2021, 17 March). Australia to send 8,000 COVID-19 vaccine doses to PNG, asks Astra-Zeneca and Europe for 1 million more. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-03-17/covid-papua-new-guinea-vaccination-australia-scott-morrison/13255158

Grattan, M. (2021, 17 March). Australia sends 8,000 vaccine doses to help Papua New Guinea’s pandemic crisis. https://theconversation.com/australia-sends-8-000-vaccine-doses-to-help-papua-new-guineas-pandemic-crisis-157310

Mola, G. (2021, 17 March). Covid has reached my hospital in Papua New Guinea – people could soon be dying in the parking lot. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/17/covid-has-reached-my-hospital-in-papua-new-guinea-people-could-soon-be-dying-in-the-parking-lot

Dziedzic, S. & Whiting, N. (2021, 16 March). Federal government ‘deeply worried’ about coronavirus situation in Papua New Guinea, plans additional support. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-03-16/australian-government-deeply-worried-png-covid-situation/13250990

Crabb, B. & Robinson, L. (2021, 15 March). A catastrophe looms with PNG’s COVID crisis. Australia needs to respond urgently. https://theconversation.com/a-catastrophe-looms-with-pngs-covid-crisis-australia-needs-to-respond-urgently-156953.

Ferrier, T. & Lyons, K. (2021, 15 March). Labor says Australia must provide PNG with Covid vaccines amid alarming outbreak. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/15/labor-says-australia-must-provide-png-with-covid-vaccines-amid-alarming-outbreak.

ABC News Online. (2021, 11 March). Fears of ‘catastrophe’ as rising COVID-19 cases hit Papua New Guinea’s stretched health system. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-03-11/png-catastrophe-coronavirus-health-system-vaccine-covid-19/13239246

Kabuni, M. (2021, 11 March). Risks ahead as COVID-19 cases surge in PNG. https://devpolicy.org/risks-ahead-as-covid-19-cases-surge-in-png-202111-2/. Development Policy Centre, ANU.

Minnegal, M. & Dwyer, P. (2021, 10 March). COVID-19 in Papua New Guinea and an imagined threat to Australia. https://devpolicy.org/covid-19-in-papua-new-guinea-and-an-imagined-threat-to-australia-20210310-2/. Development Policy Centre, ANU.

Whiting, N. (2021, 8 March). COVID outbreak out-of-control in Papua New Guinea. ABC Radio PM. https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/pm/covid-outbreak-out-of-control-in-papua-new-guinea/13227834

PNG National Department of Health and World Health Organization. (2021, 7 March). Papua New Guinea Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Health Situation Report #63 08 March 2021 Period of report: 01 – 07 March 2021. PNG National Department of Health and World Health Organization.

Kuku, R. (2021, 5 March). Papua New Guinea hospitals run out of funding as Covid cases surge. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/05/papua-new-guinea-hospitals-run-out-of-funding-as-covid-cases-surge

Whiting, N. (2021, 23 February). COVID-19 pandemic control centre’s critical functions ‘at risk of collapsing’ in PNG, leaked government report reveals. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-02-23/pngs-covid-19-control-at-risk-of-collapsing,-report-reveals/13178270

Dunn, A. (2021, 16 February). How Australia will help its neighbours to vaccinate people against coronavirus. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/how-australia-will-help-its-neighbours-to-vaccinate-people-against-coronavirus

Post Courier Online. (2021, 16 February). 10 New Covid-19 Cases Reported On Monday February 15 PNG Total Cases at 955. https://postcourier.com.pg/10-new-covid-19-cases-reported-on-monday-february-15-png-total-cases-at-955/

Wibawa, T., & Harriman, B. (Accessed 2021, 6 February). China claims it’s providing coronavirus vaccines to Papua New Guinea, but officials in Port Moresby say it’s not true. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-02-05/china-claims-to-assist-png-with-covid-19-vaccines/13127006

Kora, B. (2021, 20 January). Small number of PNG workers heading to Australia for seasonal work first time since start of COVID-19 pandemic. https://www.abc.net.au/radio-australia/programs/pacificbeat/png-seasonal-workers-head-to-australia/13072290

Samoglou, E., Carreon, B. & Doherty, B.  (2021, 6 January). Life without Covid: the nations that have sidestepped the pandemic so far. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jan/06/life-without-covid-the-nations-that-have-sidestepped-the-pandemic-so-far

Doherty, B. (2020, 3 December). Covid could derail efforts to eradicate malaria in Pacific, health experts warn. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/03/covid-could-derail-efforts-to-eradicate-malaria-in-pacific-health-experts-warn

Harriman, B. & Kora, B. (Accessed 2020, 13 November). Papua New Guinea’s Prime Minister defends multi-million-dollar plans to find COVID ‘cure’. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-10-30/png-prime-minister-defends-million-dollar-covid19-cure-plans/12831486

Ezebilo, E. E. (2020, November). COVID-19 pandemic as perceived by residents of informal-built areas segment of Port Moresby.  https://pngnri.org/images/Publications/Spotlight_Volume_13_Issue_17_COVID-19_pandemic_as_perceived_by_residents_of_informal-built_areas.pdf

Dwyer, P. D. & Minnegal, M. (Accessed 2020, 30 October). COVID-19 and Facebook in Papua New Guinea: Fly River Forum. Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/app5.312

Kabilo, P. (Accessed 2020, 26 October). COVID-19 Impacts on the Informal Economy in Wewak, Papua New Guinea. https://pacificpeoplespartnership.org/covid-19-impacts-on-the-informal-economy-in-wewak-papua-new-guinea/

McLure, H. (2020, 21 October). COVID-19 – the Pacific response: 21 October. https://www.policyforum.net/covid-19-the-pacific-response-21-october/

Rovoi, C. (2020, 21 October). Pacific leaders target unequal impacts of Covid-19 on vulnerable in region. https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/428821/pacific-leaders-target-unequal-impacts-of-covid-19-on-vulnerable-in-region

Doherty, B. (2020, 13 October). Papua New Guinea to fit ankle monitors to arrivals in Covid quarantine. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/13/papua-new-guinea-to-fit-ankle-monitors-to-arrivals-in-covid-quarantine

UNICEF. (2020, 9 October). Papua New Guinea launches its COVID-19 Education Emergencies Response and Recovery Plan. https://www.unicef.org/png/press-releases/papua-new-guinea-launches-its-covid-19-education-emergencies-response-and-recovery

Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities. (2020, 9 October). Epidemiological Risk: COVID-19 and the Pacific. http://www.crassh.cam.ac.uk/events/29376

Aualiitia, T. (2020, 6 October). WHO fast-tracking 40,000 new rapid COVID-19 tests to Papua New Guinea. https://www.abc.net.au/radio-australia/programs/pacificbeat/png-covid-testing/12734698

Radio New Zealand. (2020, 2 October). Another Covid case suggests community transmission in PNG’s Western Province. https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/427437/another-covid-case-suggests-community-transmission-in-png-s-western-province

McClure, H. (2020, 30 September). COVID-19 – The Pacific response: 30 September. https://www.policyforum.net/covid-19-the-pacific-response-30-september/

Steketee, M. (2020, 11 September). Just a matter of time for PNG? https://insidestory.org.au/just-a-matter-of-time-for-png/

McClure, H. (2020, 9 September). COVID-19 – The Pacific response. https://www.policyforum.net/covid-19-the-pacific-response-9-september/

Radio New Zealand. (2020, 6 September). PNG’s East Sepik records first Covid-19 case. https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/425373/png-s-east-sepik-records-first-covid-19-case

Magury, P. M. (2020, September). Strategic options to implement school examinations during COVID-19. https://pngnri.org/images/Publications/Spotlight_Vol_13_Issue_15_Strategic_options_to_implement_school_examinations_during_COVID-19_.pdf

Schmidt, E. & Fang, P. (2020, September). Agri-food trade trends in Papua New Guinea: Reflections on COVID-19 policies and dietary change. https://doi.org/10.2499/p15738coll2.133998

Newton Cain, T. & Carreon, B. (2020, 30 August). ‘We are in dire straits’: Pacific stands on Covid brink amid surging infection. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/30/we-are-in-dire-straits-pacific-stands-on-covid-brink-amid-surging-infections

Wilson, C. (2020, 29 August). Pacific’s fight against Covid-19 hamstrung by lack of clean water. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/29/pacifics-fight-against-covid-19-hamstrung-by-lack-of-clean-water

Howes, S. & Surandiran, S. (2020, 24 August). What are Pacific governments spending on in response to COVID-19? https://devpolicy.org/what-are-pacific-governments-spending-on-in-response-to-covid-19-20200824/

Fainu, K. (2020, 22 August). The return of shell money: PNG revives old ways after Covid’s blow to economy. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/22/the-return-of-shell-money-png-revives-old-ways-after-covids-blow-to-economy

AFP-SBS. (2020, 21 August). China questioned over claims coronavirus vaccine was trialled on workers in Papua New Guinea. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/china-questioned-over-claims-coronavirus-vaccine-was-trialled-on-workers-in-papua-new-guinea

Doherty, B. (2020, 21 August). Papua New Guinea bans Chinese mine staff ‘given experimental Covid-19 vaccine’. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/21/papua-new-guinea-bans-chinese-mine-staff-given-experimental-covid-19-vaccine

Darmadi, M. (2020, 19 August). PNG health Authorities turn to e-Health to provide medical training to outer provinces during COVID-19 pandemic. https://www.abc.net.au/radio-australia/programs/pacificbeat/png-health-authorities-turn-to-ehealth/12572606

Radio New Zealand. (2020, 14 August). Two more Covid-19 cases confirmed in PNG overnight. https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/423521/two-more-covid-19-cases-confirmed-in-png-overnight

McClure, H. (2020, 12 August). COVID-19 – the Pacific response. https://www.policyforum.net/covid-19-the-pacific-response-12-august/

Whiting, N. (2020, 12 August). Papua New Guinea is walking a tightrope on coronavirus, so it’s abandoned lockdowns. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-08-12/png-abandons-lockdown-resolves-to-live-with-coronavirus/12545602

Pacific Women. (Retrieved 2020, 12 August). A summary of Pacific Women’s Webinar on Women’s Economic Empowerment and COVID-19. https://pacificwomen.org/resources/a-summary-of-pacific-womens-webinar-on-womens-economic-empowerment-and-covid-19/#.XzJhrhg_hdQ.email

Howes, S. & Sinopane, J. (2020, 7 August). PNG’s job crisis and COVID-19. https://devpolicy.org/pngs-job-crisis-and-covid-19-20200807/

Doherty, B. (2020, 6 August). Papua New Guinea’s massive Ok Tedi mine closes as COVID cases spread to new areas. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/06/papua-new-guineas-massive-ok-tedi-mine-closes-as-covid-cases-spread-to-new-areas

Whiting, N. (2020, 1 August). PNG’s coronavirus spike appears to have been triggered by a COVID-19 lab tester. Now a hospital is the epicentre. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-08-01/pngs-big-covid-19-spike-has-come-from-within-its-health-system/12510788

Kaut-Nasengom, S. (2020, August). Potential impacts of the COVID-19 on persons with disabilities in Papua New Guinea. https://pngnri.org/images/Publications/Spotlight_Vol_13_Issue_14_Potential_impact_of_COVID-19_on_persons_with_disabilities_in_Papua_New_Guinea.pdf

Business Advantage PNG. (2020, July). Economic Update on Papua New Guinea. https://youtu.be/Rbn5DhL4XPM

World Bank Group. (2020, July). In the Time of COVID-19: From Relief to Recovery. http://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/964591594230524376/pdf/Papua-New-Guinea-Economic-Update-In-the-Time-of-COVID-19-From-Relief-to-Recovery.pdf

ABC Radio National. (2020, 27 July). PNG calls on World Health Organization and military for help to deal with coronavirus. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/breakfast/png-calls-on-world-health-organization-and-military-for-help/12493986

Doherty, B. (2020, 27 July). Coronavirus cases in Papua New Guinea double in days. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/27/coronavirus-cases-in-papua-new-guinea-double-in-days

Togiba, L. & Doherty, B.  (2020, 25 July). We don’t have enough beds: PNG hospitals braces for Covid-19 surge.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/25/we-dont-have-enough-beds-png-hospitals-braces-for-covid-19-surge?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_Gmail 

Whiting, N. & Kora, B. (2020, 23 July). Coronavirus cases rise in Papua New Guinea, prompting fears for vulnerable health systemhttps://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-07-22/coronavirus-covid-19-png-port-moresby-cases-rise/12480306

Graue, C. (2020, 22 July). PNG bracing for new restrictions after eight new COVID-19 cases confirmed. https://www.abc.net.au/radio-australia/programs/pacificbeat/png-bracing-for-new-restrictions-after-eight-new-covid-cases/12479344

Radio New Zealand. (2020, 21 July). Two more Covid-19 cases in PNG capitalhttps://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/421658/two-more-covid-19-cases-in-png-capital

Doherty, B. (2020, 20 July). First coronavirus-linked death in Melanesia as Papua New Guinea outbreak spreads. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/20/first-coronavirus-linked-death-in-melanesia-as-papua-new-guinea-outbreak-spreads

Kabuni, M. (2020, 17 July). COVID-19 in Papua New Guineahttps://www.policyforum.net/covid-19-in-papua-new-guinea/

Griffith Asia Institute (2020). COVID-19 Aid to the Pacific Tracker. https://www.griffith.edu.au/asia-institute/partnerships-collaborations/pacific-hub/coronavirus-aid-in-the-pacific

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Health clinic in remote Western Province, PNG. 2.
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